Periodontology is a branch of dentistry that deals with the structure and tissues that support teeth, as well as the diseases and conditions that affect them.
Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. It causes redness, swelling and bleeding of the gums. At this stage there are either minor or no inconvenience. Factors contributing to the development of this disease are diabetes, smoking, aging, genetic predisposition, systemic diseases and conditions, malnutrition, puberty, hormonal changes, pregnancy, substance abuse, HIV infection and the use of certain drugs.
If gingivitis is not properly treated, it can develop into periodontitis. Over time, the plaque may spread below the gum line. Toxins that produce bacteria from plaque irritate the gums and stimulate chronic inflammation. Gums detach from the teeth, creating pockets where infection occurs. As the disease progresses, pockets deepen and cause greater tissue damage. This destructive process often has very mild symptoms and over time the teeth can become wobbly and need to be removed.
Scaling and root planning are professional procedures for cleaning the root surface in order to remove plaque and calculus from deep periodontal pockets and for polishing the root in order to remove bacterial toxins.
Soft tissue transplantation in the oral cavity is performed to increase the amount of soft tissue in certain areas to prevent further gum withdrawal, cover the exposed root, stop hypersensitivity in the affected area, improve tooth appearance and prevent future problems.
Gingivectomy is a treatment that surgically removes inflamed and excessive gum tissue and bacteria that can cause periodontosis. Gingivoplasty is a surgical remodelling of gum tissue and is often done in combination with gingivectomy for cosmetic and functional purposes.
Are your gums quite exposed while smiling or talking? The so-called ""gummy smile"" is an aesthetic problem solved by modern periodontal intervention - the enlargement of the clinical crown of the tooth. On the basis of detailed radiological images and clinical analyses, excess gums are removed and crowns are adjusted using ceramic veneers.
In some cases, gum withdrawal can cause the root exposure, which makes your teeth look longer and makes you look older than you really are. Such withdrawal occurs due to various causes, including periodontal disease. Gum replacement surgeries are designed to cover the exposed root, prevent further gum withdrawal, and protect vulnerable root from decay.